When writing academic article, course completion work or other research, the author should be careful not to commit plagiarism, which may be more common and tenuous than one might imagine. The detection of the practice in America has already led to the refusal of articles and the loss of titration of the researcher.
The most grotesque plagiarism is the full copy of a paper, but there is the partial or subtle version that can be detected by programs and websites (see below). In plagiarism, the text is usually a mixture with copies of paragraphs and phrases of other authors or of ideas and concepts paraphrased without the quotation from the original source. Pictures, tables and images copied without the correct indication of the source or authorization also fit this example.
How to avoid
According to the professor of the Professional Masters in Mathematics Education of the UFJF Marco Aurélio Kistemann, so that plagiarism does not occur, the student should request guidance from teachers and more experienced researchers. “The writing of a scientific text stems from previous research in various sources, primary or otherwise, of confirmation of these sources and the exercise of writing. In this sense, being guided by those who have already learned to write and quote correctly is part of the path that will enable the genesis of ethical researchers responsible for producing original research or derived from others.
Participating in lectures, reading booklets, tutorials and accessing websites on copied research losses are other methods that can help. Constant reading, writing, and frequent peer review also contribute to copywriting.
From the guidelines, the author must follow the rules of the American Association of Technical Standards. The UFJF has a page to answer questions about the formatting of citations and references.
Another type of plagiarism that has gained discussion is the copy of content published by the author himself. An example is to use article submitted to a scientific journal and then rewrite it to be presented at a congress.
There is also, according to the professor, the production “salame”, when one uses excerpts from an article and distributes them in other works. “This modality is still being determined by the agencies and only when it is detected, the author receives an opinion requesting changes in the text.”
The autoplágio can aim to “increase the number of articles published, seeking greater visibility in the scientific community and obtain funding for research,” according to Kistemann. There is also, according to the teacher, the invention or manipulation of data to force a result.
Ethics and violation
In the UFJF, there is no disciplinary sanction for plagiarism specifically foreseen in the Undergraduate Academic Regiment. But there is the risk of punishment. Each postgraduate program and academic unit has guidelines on the appropriate use of scientific standards and methodologies. Once the case is established, the forger can be included in the crime of violation of copyright, in article 184 of the Penal Code.
“In ethical terms, plagiarism constitutes a serious breach of scientific norms of conduct, confirming intellectual dishonesty to accumulate published articles and prestige in scientific society,” says Professor Marco Aurélio.
“In short, it is necessary to revise the system itself, which often contributes to the selection of only the number of published articles – quantitative bias – for the granting of grants and financial benefits for conducting research. The qualitative bias should also be considered, as well as other productions could form the framework for concessions. “
There are a number of tools, including free and paid websites, that can find out if some part of the work has been plagiarized, such as Turnitin, Plagius, iThenticate, Plagiarism detect, Ephorus, Jplag, Plagiarism Sniffer and DOC Cop.
According to the site, there are works registered in more than 12 languages, detect plagiarism even if the original work is in a foreign language, and in different formats such as Word (doc), PDF and HTML files.
Plagiarism was the focus of the lecture that UFJF professor Marco Aurélio Kistemann delivered last Thursday, 4. Under the title “The production of academic texts: plagiarism”, the presentation took place at 6:00 pm at the Amphitheater of the Department of Mathematics, at the Institute of Exact Sciences, as part of the series of seminars of the Professional Master in Mathematics Education.
In the event, the teacher listed characteristics of the scientific text, distinctions between what is considered plagiarism and what is not, its different types, gave guidelines and examples that have gained repercussion. “Sometimes because of lack of time or orientation, the author can not work as richly as he wished, but the text is still author. It is necessary to establish guiding dialogues on what, how and why to be ethical in scientific writing with our peers and orientandos. “